Salma Bibi is currently doing her Masters, majoring in Molecular and environmental plant sciences from Texas A & M University, USA. She is 24 years old.
Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) is a C4 cereal grain crop which is grown in semi-arid tropics of Africa and Asia, and is an important component in traditional farming systems and in diets of millions of people. Improving Water-use efficiency (WUE) of crops which is the ratio of whole-plant biomass to cumulative transpiration is becoming a main goal for agriculture and food security goals. In this study water use was apportioned into transpiration (T) and soil evaporation (Es), and water-use efficiency (WUE) and transpiration efficiency (TE), the biomass produced per unit water transpired were calculated. Bloomless which visually exhibit an absence of white fluffy epicuticular wax in leaf sheath was characterized by physiological approaches. A greenhouse experiment was conducted at College Station, TX, 2015 by using a mutation breeding approach to obtain near Isogenic lines of sorghum M401 and Tx623 where M401 is generally a low-wax load (WL) genotype and was the male parent and the Tx623 (ms3) was the recurrent parent. A total of 50 F4 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from cross of Stg4XM1789. Net CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, transpiration rate and water use efficiency were measured on the fully developed flag leaves in irrigated and non-irrigated 40 days old plants using CI-350 photosynthesis system. Leaves were collected from bloom and bloomless lines and epicuticular wax load and cumulative water loss (CWL) were measured, also the relationship among EWL, CWL and water-use efficiency were analyzed. Differences in response to irrigation level varied between both genotypes. Among irrigated plants bloomless (XS2) exhibited higher water use efficiency than bloom (XS1). Among non-irrigated plants bloom (XS1) exhibited lower water-use efficiencies than bloomless (XS2) respectively. Water-use efficiency measured in non-irrigated bloomless mutant line with no visible wax structure on the abaxial leaf surface was more than 40% below that measure in bloom. The water loss from the excised leaves was greater in bloomless lines than in bloom lines. Water-use efficiency varied linearly with epicuticular wax load under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions.
Banaz Mahmood has completed her BSc at the age of 22 years from the University of Sulaimani and MSc studies at the age of 27 years from the same University School of Agriculture. She is a final year PhD student in Biology at the University of Plymouth. She has published one paper in IJBBB journal and she is doing the second one and it will be published soon.
Chamomile (Matricaia chamomilla L.) and yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) contain a range of bioactive compounds. The majority of bioactive compounds are terpenoids, phenols and flavonoids. In fact, these compounds are mainly responsible for their pharmaceutical properties and they act as antiinflammatory and antihemorrhagic. Furthermore, plants produce these compounds to protect themselves against pathogenic microorganisms and abiotic stresses. Solvent extraction of bioactive compounds from plant materials such as: leaves and flowers is an essential first step in the study of medicinal plants. Subsequently, the quantitative and qualitative testing is also an important step in the identification of these compounds using HPLC and GC/FID. Extraction process was carried out by a soxhlet and shaking extractions using methanol and hexane as solvents, the process was achieved to compare the extraction quality between both solvents. The results of chamomile leaves HPLC analysis indicated that chlorogenic acid was isolated at 6.043 min as a major phenolic compound. However, chlorogenic acid and apigenin-7-O-glucoside were dominated in yarrow leaves as phenolic and flavonoid compounds at 6.040 min and 7.647min, respectively. Moreover the flower tissue essential oils were analysed by GC-FID method. The main terpenoid components found in both chamomile and yarrow species extracted by soxhlet and shaking extractions were bisabolol oxide A, chamazulene, farnesene, umbelliferone and limonene at different retention times. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the chemical compounds found in chamomile flower essential oil can reduce the growth of Porphyromonas gingivalis and Bacillus cereus. In addition, bioassays essential oils extracted from yarrow showed that the gram positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus cereus) were more resistant to the oil with 3- 4.5 mm inhibition zones. However, the greatest activity against gram negative bacteria was detected in Escherichia coli (20.4mm inhibition zone). The aim of this work was to explore the possible inhibitory effect of the chamomile and yarrow methanolic flower extracts on the growth of some gram positive and gram negative bacteria strains.